An increase in the global average temperature would lead to areas in the mid-latitudes more subject to desertification phenomena, also by virtue of the prolonged absence of atmospheric precipitation due to drought and heat waves.
NASA, with a short video of 26 seconds, shows the evolution of global warming over the last 131 years, highlighting a surge in temperatures especially in the last two decades. The direct and indirect effects of extreme climate events on insects, is a very interesting study published on the The Science of the total environment, which explains: "Extreme climate events are predicted to increase in the future, which will have significant effects on insect biodiversity.
Research into this area has been rapidly expanding, but knowledge gaps still exist. We conducted a review of the literature to provide a synthesis of extreme climate events on insects and identify future areas of research.
In our review, we asked the following questions: 1) What are the direct and indirect mechanisms that extreme climate events affect individual insects? 2) What are the effects of extreme climate events on insect populations and demography? 3) What are the implications of the extreme climate events effects on insect communities? Drought was among the most frequently described type of extreme climate event affecting insects, as well as the effects of temperature extremes and ex treme temperature variation.
Our review explores the factors that determine the sensitivity or resilience to climate extremes for individuals, populations, and communities. We also identify areas of future research to better understand the role of extreme climate events on insects including effects on non-trophic interactions, alteration of population dynamics, and mediation of the functional the trait set of communities.
Many insect species are under threat from global change and extreme climate events are a contributing factor. Biologists and policy makers should consider the role of extreme events in their work to mitigate the loss of biodiversity and delivery of ecosystem services by insects."
Prenatal maternal pesticide exposure and effects on adolescence
Prenatal maternal pesticide exposure in relation to sleep health of offspring during adolescence, published on the Environmental research, is a very interesting study that tends to see an aspect that can be very important for the health of adolescents.
We can read: "The neurobiological processes involved in establishing sleep regulation are vulnerable to environmental exposures as early as seven weeks of gestation. Studies have linked in utero pesticide exposure to childhood sleep-disordered breathing.
the sleep health of adolescents remains unexplored. Data from 137 mother-adolescent pairs from a Mexico City cohort were analyzed. We used maternal urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA, pyrethroid metabolite) and 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy, chlorpyrifos metabolite) from trimester three to estimate in utero pesticide exposure.
Among adolescents, we obtained repeated measures of objectively assessed sleep duration, midpoint, and fragmentation using wrist-actigraphy devices for 7 consecutive days in 2015 and 2017. Unstratified and sex-stratified associations between maternal urinary 3-PBA and TCPy and adolescent sleep measures were examined using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs).
We also examined the interactive effects of maternal pesticide exposure and offspring sex on sleep outcomes. 3-PBA and TCPy were detected in 44.4% and 93% of urine samples, respectively. Adjusted findings demonstrated that higher exposure to maternal TCPy was associated with longer sleep duration and later sleep timing.
Findings from interaction tests between maternal pesticide exposure and offspring sex were not statistically significant, although adjusted sex-stratified findings showed that the association between TCPy with duration and midpoint was evident only among female offspring.
To illustrate, those in the highest tertile of exposure had a 59 minute (95% CI: 12.2, 104.8) (p, trend = 0.004) longer sleep duration and a 0.6 hour (95% CI: 0.01, 1.3) (p, trend = 0.01) later sleep midpoint. We found no significant associations between 3-PBA and sleep outcomes.
Conclusion: Within a cohort of mother-adolescent pairs, we found associations between maternal prenatal pesticide exposure and longer sleep duration and later sleep timing among adolescent offspring. Further, this association may be female-specific."