Like arachnids, scorpions have organs near their mouths called chelicerae, a pair of pedipalps, and four pairs of legs. The pincer-shaped pedipalps are mainly used for catching prey and for defense and are covered with different types of sensory hair.
The body is divided into two main areas, the cephalothorax and the abdomen. The cephalothorax is covered by a carapace, or head shell, which usually has a pair of median eyes and two to five pairs of lateral eyes in the periphery of the head; some cave scorpions are eyeless.
Scorpions are commonly thought of as desert animals, but they also live in many other landscapes such as grasslands and savannas, deciduous forests, rainforests and caves. Scorpions have been found under snow-covered rocks at over 3600m in the South American Andes and the Himalayas, Asia.
Scorpions are nocturnal predatory animals that feed on a wide variety of insects and spiders. The prey is mainly identified by perceiving vibrations. Pedipalps have a series of sensory hairs that feel the vibrations of the air; the tips of the legs have small sensory organs that perceive the vibrations of the earth.
The venom of scorpions is mainly used for the capture of prey and is formed by complex mixtures of neurotoxins (toxins that block the functioning of the nervous system), formed mainly by proteins and sodium and potassium cations; each species has its own unique blend.
The venom of scorpions is mainly aimed at blocking activity in other arthropods; consequently it is generally harmless to humans, and a sting can only produce localized effects (pain, swelling and feelings of exhaustion).
However, some scorpions, mainly of the Butidi family (such as the golden scorpion of China), can be very dangerous for humans. The study: Neurological and Systemic Manifestations of Severe Scorpion Envenomation, published on the Cureus, said us: "Scorpion envenomation is a life-threatening toxicological emergency and considered as a major public health problem, especially in endemic regions (India, Africa, Latin America ); it is generally characterized by low resources and tropical or subtropical weather.
Scorpion envenomation is especially fatal in the first hours, usually due to respiratory and / or cardiovascular collapse. The neurologic manifestations, triggered by multiple neurotoxic mechanisms, are varied and complex and mostly reported in children.
The aim of this review is to clarify the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical manifestations as well as diagnosis and management of neurologic complications following scorpion envenomation. The management of patients with severe clinical forms is based on early recognition of the sting, antivenom serum administration, and cardiorespiratory and systemic support. "