Snakes as bimonitors of environmental pollution

Snakes as bimonitors of environmental pollution: A review on organic contaminants, published on the The Science of the total environment, try to explain on the topic

by Lorenzo Ciotti
Snakes as bimonitors of environmental pollution

Snakes as bimonitors of environmental pollution: A review on organic contaminants, published on the The Science of the total environment, try to explain on the topic: "Monitoring data on organic pollutants published between the late 1960s and 2020 are reviewed to provide comprehensive and updated insights into their bioaccumulation characteristics, sources, and fate in snakes.

Multiple organic pollutant classes including pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated paraffins, dioxin-related compounds, alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, flame retardants, plasticizers, etc., were detected in various aquatic and terrestrial snake species with concentrations and patterns varying between species and locations.

In general, higher concentrations of organic pollutants were found in snakes collected from contaminated sites (e.g., densely populated, pesticide-treated, and waste processing areas), suggesting that snakes can serve as good biomonitors of environmental pollution c aused by organic contaminants.

Factors influencing concentrations and patterns of organic pollutants in snakes are discussed, providing an overview of current understanding about their accumulation, transformation, and elimination processes. Potential negative effects associated with organic pollutants in snakes and their predators are also considered.

Based on such discussions, research gaps and future perspectives on the utilization of snake biomonitoring studies are addressed, heading towards an effective monitoring and assessment scheme for a variety of legacy and emerging organic pollutants in the environment."

Venomous Snake and Spider Bites in Pregnancy

A zootoxin is any toxin produced by animals.

It is commonly called poison and the animal that produces it poisonous animal even if often the mechanism of action is different from that of common poisons. Zootoxins can be found in the blood, muscles, liver, or processed by specialized glands.

In some species, the toxin remains inside the body, in others it is used for defensive or predatory purposes. Not all animals are equally toxic throughout their lives and in some cases the production of toxins varies according to the time of year.

Two types of zootoxins can be distinguished by method of administration and three categories of animals according to the structures to which the toxin itself is associated. Many amphibians and reptiles are poisonous. The former do not have vulnerable systems and it is the skin itself that contains the toxin.

The poisonous species of the latter generally possess salivary glands containing toxins linked to the dentition. Among the saurians, the genus Heloderma is poisonous, but the monitor lizards also have toxic saliva. The snakes belonging to the families of the atractaspidids, elapids and viperids are venomous, as well as a part of the colubrids.

The most poisonous species are frequent in the equatorial zone. Among the arthropods there are scorpions, hymenoptera and arachnids with stingers and buccal structures capable of inoculating toxins. Bloodsucking insects use to inject saliva with anticoagulant principles before sucking blood; this operation can create allergic reactions.

The Venomous Snake and Spider Bites in Pregnancy study, published on the Obstetrical & gynecological survey, said in its research: "Venomous snake and spider bites are relatively rare in the Unites States and even more so in the pregnant population.

a venomous bite, also known as an envenomation, can be serious in a pregnant patient. Thus, providers in endemic and high-risk areas must be familiar with the management of envenomation in the pregnant population. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the most common snake and spider envenomations in the United States, the effects of envenomation on maternal and fetal health, and the management of envenomation in pregnancy.

Original research articles, review articles, and guidelines on snake and spider envenomation were reviewed. Snake envenomation carries higher risks of maternal morbidity and fetal morbidity and mortality than spider envenomation.

Although the data are limited, current literature suggests that both snake and spider antivenom can be used in the pregnant population without significant adverse outcomes. However, the risks of an adverse hypersensitivity reaction with antivenom administration should be weighed carefully with the benefits.

The use of antivenom therapy in the symptomatic envenomated pregnant population is likely safe with the appropriate monitoring and follow-up. Knowledge of the indications for antivenom therapy and proper escalation of care are vital to optimizing maternal and fetal outcomes.

More research is needed to determine the effects of both envenomation and antivenom therapy on the pregnant patient and their fetus. "