Global warming, in addition to the melting of ice in glaciers and polar ice caps with consequent sea level rise and land reduction, an increase in temperature means an increase in the energy present in the atmosphere and therefore extreme weather events, such as cyclones, floods, droughts, waves of heat and frost, of greater numbers with greater violence; the chemical alteration of the atmosphere causes a chemical alteration of all ecosystems.
However, it is still very difficult to predict how the current global warming will actually affect the planetary system. Global climate is a multifactorial non-linear system, so climatology can establish trends, but not typical short-term detail events instead of meteorological analyzes.
According to scientists, at a meteorological level, i.e. at seasonal and lower time scales, a more energetic atmosphere would cause an acceleration of the water cycle and greater air exchanges along the meridians with an increase in associated extreme phenomena, with strong repercussions on agricultural crops and in general on anthropized areas and not.
The study: Impacts of global warming on marine microbial communities, published on the The Science of the total environment, said us: "Global warming in ocean ecosystems alters temperature, acidification, oxygen content, circulation, stratification, and nutrient inputs.
Microorganisms play a dominant role in global biogeochemical cycles crucial for a planet's sustainability. Since microbial communities are highly dependent on the temperature factor, fluctuations in the same will lead to adverse effects on the microbial community organization.
Throughout the Ocean, increase in evaporation rates causes the surface mixed layer to become shallower. This intensified stratification inhibits vertical transport of nutrient supplies. Such density driven processes will decrease oxygen solubility in surface waters leading to significant decrease of oxygen from future Ocean.
Metabolism and diversity of microbes along with ocean biogeochemistry will be at great risk due to global warming and its r elated effects. As a response to the changes in temperature, alteration in the distribution of phytoplankta communities is observed all over the planet, creating changes in the primary production of the ocean causing massive impact on the biosphere.
Marine microbial communities try to adapt to the changing ocean environmental conditions by responding with biogeographic range shifts, community structure modifications, and adaptive evolution. Persistence of this climate change on ocean ecosystems, in future, will pose serious threat to the metabolism and distribution of marine microbes leading to fluctuations in the biogeochemical cycles thereby affecting the overall ecosystem functioning.
Genomics plays an important role in marine microbial research by providing tools to study the association between environment and organisms. The ecological and genomic perspectives of marine microbes are being investigated to design effective models to understand their physiology and evolution in a changing ocean.
Mesocosm / microcosm experimental studies and field studies are in the need of the hour to evaluate the impact of climate shifts on microbial genesis. "