Diabetes mellitus in the era of climate change is a very interesting study that allows us to make a correlation between diabetes and the climate crisis, with surprising results. Published on the Diabetes & metabolism, teh study said how worldwide, diabetes mellitus (DM) represents a major public-health problem due to its increasing prevalence in tandem with the rising trend of obesity.
However, climate change, with its associated negative health effects, also constitutes a worrisome problem. Patients with DM are experiencing more visits to emergency departments, hospitalizations, morbidity and mortality during heat waves at ever-increasing numbers.
Such patients are particularly vulnerable to heat waves due to impaired thermoregulatory mechanisms in conjunction with impaired autonomous nervous system responses at high temperatures, electrolyte imbalances and rapid deterioration of kidney function, particularly among those aged> 80 years and with preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Moreover, exposure to cold temperatures is associated with increased rates of acute myocardial infarction as well as poor glycaemic control, although results are conflicting regarding cold-related mortality among patients with DM.
In addition to extremes of temperature, air pollution as a consequence of the climate crisis may also be implicated in the increased prevalence and incidence of DM, particularly gestational DM (GDM), and lead to deleterious effects in patients with DM.
T hus, more large-scale studies are now required to elucidate the association between specific air pollutants and risk of DM. This review presents the currently available evidence for the detrimental effects of climate change, particularly those related to weather variables, on patients with DM (both type 1 and type 2) and GDM.
Specifically, the effects of heat waves and extreme cold, and pharmaceutical and therapeutic issues and their implications, as well as the impact of air pollution on the risk for DM are synthesized and discussed here.
This is how acidification affects olfaction in marine organisms
Acidification can directly affect olfaction in marine organisms.
This was reported by the same study published in the The Journal of experimental biology, which tells us how in the past decade, many studies have investigated the effects of low pH / high CO2 as a proxy for ocean acidification on olfactory-mediated behaviors of marine organisms.
The effects of ocean acidification on the behavior of fish vary from very large to none at all, and most of the maladaptive behaviors observed have been attributed to changes in acid-base regulation, leading to changes in ion distribution over neural membranes, and consequently affecting the functioning of gamma-aminobutyric acid-mediated (GABAergic) neurotransmission.
Here, we highlight a possible additional mechanism by which ocean acidification might directly affect olfaction in marine fish and invertebrates. We propose that a decrease in pH can directly affect the protonation, and thereby, 3D conformation and charge distribution of odorants and / or their receptors in the olfactory organs of aquatic animals.
This can sometimes enhance signalling, but most of the time the affinity of odorants for their receptors is reduced in high CO2 / low pH; therefore, the activity of olfactory receptor neurons decreases as measured using electrophysiology.
The reduced signal reception would translate into reduced activation of the olfactory bulb neurons, which are responsible for processing olfactory information in the brain. Over longer exposures of days to weeks, changes in gene expression in the olfactory receptors and olfactory bulb neurons cause these neurons to become less active, exacerbating the problem.
A change in olfactory system functioning leads to inappropriate behavioral responses to odorants. We discuss gaps in the literature and suggest some changes to experimental design in order to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and their effects on the associated behaviors to resolve some current controversy in the field regarding the extent of the effects of ocean acidification on marine fish.