As reported by our colleagues at Greenme.it, 2021 was one of the warmest years in history. Climatologist Maximiliano Herrerauovi said new heat records were set in Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Canada, the United States, Morocco, Turkey, Taiwan, Italy, Tunisia and Dominica, while 107 countries broke their monthly record of high temperatures.
Africa had the hottest months of June and September ever. In Italy in August it reached 48.8 ° C in Syracuse, the highest temperature ever recorded in Europe, and in July it was 54.4 ° C in Furnace Creek in Death Valley, USA.
Ozone hole: record in 2021 for size and duration
"Both Antarctic ozone holes of 2020 and 2021 were quite large and exceptionally long-lasting. These two exceptionally prolonged and consecutive episodes are not an indicator that the Montreal Protocol is not working, as, without it, would have been even more extensive.
Interannual variability due to weather and dynamic conditions can have a significant impact on the size of the ozone hole, overlapping with long-term recovery. CAMS also monitors the amount of UV radiation they reach. the Earth's surface, and in recent weeks we have observed very high UV indices in some areas of Antarctica located under the ozone hole.
The data collected, together with our forecasts, allow us to monitor the ozone season and compare the its development with that of the last 40 years. " These are the words of Vincent-Henri Peuch, director of Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service, to explain what happened over Antarctica in 2020 and 2021 due to the ozone hole.
As reported by our colleagues at Greenme.it, in fact, the 2021 ozone hole is one of the largest and longest ever measured, according to Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service. Copernicus scientists said: "Substances containing chlorine and bromine accumulate within the polar vortex where they remain chemically inactive in the dark.
The temperatures that occur in the vortex can drop below -78 degrees Celsius and the formation of ice crystals in polar stratospheric clouds, which play an important role in chemical reactions. When the sun rises above the pole, solar energy releases chemically active chlorine and bromine atoms into the vortex which rapidly destroy ozone molecules, causing the formation of the hole."