Himalayas in danger due to the climate crisis. Recent research has revealed that, if emissions continue to rise, almost all of the world's ice will disappear, except the ice of the two poles and the Himalayas, but the peaks of this mountain range would also suffer greatly from global warming.
The sight of the Himalayan mountains, of these pillars of the sky that rise limpid and powerful from the mists and imperfections of the world, evokes the lotus flower, symbol of the Buddhist faith. The lotus flower also has its roots in the mud which is similar to saṃsāra, the eternal cycle of births and deaths; but when it blooms, its corolla, rising high on the stem, opens white and immaculate to represent the salvation of consciousness and the eternal serenity of Nirvana.
It is certainly no coincidence that ancient peoples, on both sides of the Himalayan range, have always identified the highest mountains in the world as the seat of their gods. Even today, following an ancient tradition, the custom in mountaineering expeditions is sometimes in force to stop one meter below the summit for a sense of mystical respect and deferential homage to the house of God.
The first belt of the Himalayas, called the Subhimalayas, is made up of not very high chains, very fragmented and dismantled by erosion, formed almost entirely of tertiary rocks; followed by a median zone, divided into Small and Large Himalayas, in which gneisses and granites predominate and which rises in very high massifs, in which 10 peaks exceed 7000 m above sea level.
The third band between the middle zone and the upper Indus and Brahmaputra valleys is similar in structure and formation to the marginal chains of Tibet and in it predominates rocks from numerous periods, from the Cambrian to the middle Eocene.
This area has an uneven width and to the west, beyond the Indus, it is grafted into the Karakorum, the gigantic massif that has the largest glaciers on Earth. Great Himalayas stretch from the western pillar of Nanga Parbat (8125m) to Namcha Barwa (7755m), which dominates the transverse valley of Dihong-Brahmaputra.
It includes all the highest peaks, ten of which exceed 8000 m; they are from west to east: Nanga Parbat (8125 m), Dhaulagiri (8172 m), Annapurna (8078 m), Manaslu (8125 m), Shisha Pangma (8013 m), Cho Oyu (8189 m), Everest (8848 m ), Lhotse (8501 m), Makalu (8481 m), Kanchenjonga (8597 m).
Everest, which in the highest part is made up of shales and metamorphic limestones with granite intrusions, after numerous failed attempts, was reached on 29 May 1953 by an English expedition led by Colonel Hunt: the New Zealander Edmund Percival Hillary and the Sherpa bearer Tensing Norkay.