Chronic kidney disease is a pathological condition that affects the kidney and that can cause progressive and complete loss of kidney function or complications resulting from reduced kidney function. Chronic kidney disease is also defined as the presence of kidney damage, highlighted by particular laboratory, instrumental or pathological findings, or reduced kidney function that lasts for at least 3 months, regardless of the underlying disease.
The natural consequence of CKD is chronic renal failure (CRI), that is, the progressive and irreversible loss of kidney function. In its most advanced stages, chronic kidney disease is identified with chronic kidney failure, that is, with the reduction of the filtration function of the kidneys, quantifiable with creatinine clearance or with various formulas that estimate the glomerular filtration rate.
Complete loss of kidney function necessitates replacement treatment, represented by dialysis or transplantation.
Role of air pollution in chronic kidney disease
Among the various causes, lately there is also talk of air quality and pollution: we recall how studies have shown how these cause damage to health.
The study: Emerging role of air pollution in chronic kidney disease, published on the Environmental science and pollution research international, explained: "Chronic kidney disease (CKD), a global disease burden related to high rates of incidence and mortality, manifests as progressive and irretrievable nephron loss and decreased kidney regeneration capacity.
Emerging studies have suggested that exposure to air pollution is closely relevant to increased risk of CKD, CKD progression and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Inhaled airborne particles may cause vascular injury, intraglomerular hypertension, or glomerulosclerosis through non-hemodynamic and hemodynamic factors with multiple complex interactions.
The mechanisms linking air pollutants exposure to CKD include elevated blood pressure, worsening oxidative stress and inflammatory response, DNA damage and abnormal metabolic changes to aggravate kidney damage. In the present review, we will discuss the epidemiologic observations link ing air pollutants exposure to the incidence and progression of CKD.
Then, we elaborate the potential roles of several air pollutants including particulate matter and gaseous co-pollutants, environmental tobacco smoke, and gaseous heavy metals in its pathogenesis. Finally, this review outlines the latent effect of air pollution in ESKD patients undergoing dialysis or renal transplant, kidney cancer and other kidney diseases.
The information obtained may be beneficial for further elucidating the pathogenesis of CKD and making proper preventive strategies for this disease. "