To keep the climate system within conditions that guarantee the survival of the human species and most of those currently living on planet Earth, it is therefore necessary to quickly eliminate the emission of further greenhouse gases and remove those already in the atmosphere through so-called negative emissions.
Surveys such as the 2018 Emissions Gap Report show that, by contrast, greenhouse gas emissions around the world have further increased rather than decreased, and technical solutions for large-scale negative emissions are not at all promising for the time being.
so the risk of a climate catastrophe persists. The term climate crisis is therefore used to describe the threat of global warming to the planet, and the need for aggressive mitigation of climate change. The impact of climate change on the risk factors for tuberculosis: A systematic review, published on the Environmental research, explains: "Tuberculosis (TB) continues to pose a major public health risk in many countries.
The current incidence of disease exceeds guidelines proposed by the World Health Organization and United Nations. Whilst the relationship between climate change and TB has surfaced in recent literature, it remains neglected in global agendas.
There is a need to acknowledge TB as a climate-sensitive disease to facilitate its eradication. To review epidemiological and prediction model studies that explore how climate change may affect the risk factors for TB, as outlined in the Global Tuberculosis Report 2021: HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, undernutrition, overcrowding, poverty, and indoor air pollution.
We conducted a systematic literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases to identify studies examining the association between climate variables and the risk factors for TB. Each study that satisfied the inclusion criteria was assessed for quality and ethics.
Studies then underwent vote-counting and were categorized based on whether an association was found. 53 studies met inclusion criteria and were included in our review. Vote-counting revealed that two out of two studies found a positive association between the examined climate change proxy and HIV, nine out of twelve studies for diabetes, eight out of seventeen studies for undernutrition, four out of five studies for overcrowding, twelve out of fifteen studies for poverty and one out of three studies for indoor air pollution.
We found evidence supporting a positive association between climate change and each of the discussed risk factors for TB, excluding indoor air pollution. Our findings suggest that climate change is likely to affect the susceptibility of individuals to TB by increasing the prevalence of its underlying risk factors, particularly in developing countries. This is an evolving field of research that requires further attention in the scientific community."