The warmth of the oceans reached record levels in 2021: this is the last year evaluated for this metric. Overall, 55% of the ocean surface experienced at least one sea heat wave in 2022. In contrast, only 22% of the ocean surface experienced a sea cold wave.
Over the past 30 years, temperatures in Europe have risen more than double the global average, the highest value of any continent in the world. The data on temperatures, however, refer to 2021. From 1991 to 2021, Europe became 0.5 ° C warmer, causing Alpine glaciers to lose 30 meters in thickness from 1997 to 2021.
Extreme temperatures will increase in frequency and intensity regardless of the greenhouse gas emissions scenario. A decrease in summer precipitation is also expected in the Mediterranean, with a particular extension to the northern regions.
Why have temperatures in Europe increased more than double the world average?
Between 2021 and 2022 in Switzerland, 6% of the volume of glaciers was lost, and for the first time in the climatic history of the Swiss nation, snow did not survive the summer season even at the highest measurement sites, therefore no accumulation of fresh ice has occurred.
The WMO reports that between 2001 and 2022 the volume of Swiss glaciers dropped from 77 cubic km to 49 cubic km. In 2022, average thickness losses between 3 and over 4 meters were measured throughout the Alps, significantly higher than those recorded in the previous record year, 2003.
the European Union managed to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 31% between 1990 and 2020, with a net reduction target of 55% for 2030. Europe is also one of the most advanced regions in cross-border cooperation in 'adaptation to climate change, particularly through transnational river basins and is one of the world leaders in providing effective early warning systems, with around 75% of people protected.
Furthermore, temperatures in October 2022 in Europe were the warmest recorded in the month, 2 degrees higher than in the 1991-2020 period. For the month of October, it was drier than average in most of southern Europe and the Caucasus.
Elsewhere in Europe, the north-western Iberian Peninsula, the regions of France and Germany, the United Kingdom and Ireland, the north-west of Scandinavia, a large region of Eastern Europe and central Turkey, the climate was wetter than average.
Temperatures in Europe increased by the highest of any continent over the last 30 years. The #StateOfClimate in Europe presents a live picture of a warming world.
Press release? https://t.co/fvRzBUauOL
?@CopernicusECMWF pic.twitter.com/KRvhGiHOOv — World Meteorological Organization (@WMO) November 2, 2022