Global warming is characterized by the increase in the global average temperature and by atmospheric phenomena associated with it, of which the predominant causes are to be found in human activity, due to the emissions into the earth's atmosphere of increasing quantities of greenhouse gases and other factors always attributable to human activities.
The Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997 and which as of November 2009 counts the adhesion of 187 States, aims to reduce these man-made greenhouse gases. The Paris Agreement, signed in November 2015, commits participating States to keep the global temperature rise well below 2 ° C compared to pre-industrial levels.
An increase in the global average temperature would lead to areas in the middle latitudes more subject to desertification phenomena, also by virtue of the prolonged absence of atmospheric precipitation due to drought and heat waves.
Climate warming side effect with plants and pollinators
The research Climate warming changes synchrony of plants and pollinators, published on the Proceedings. Biological sciences, said: "Climate warming changes the phenology of many species.
When interacting organisms respond differently, climate change may disrupt their interactions and affect the stability of ecosystems. Here, we used global biodiversity facility occurrence records to examine phenology trends in plants and their associated insect pollinators in Germany since the 1980s.
We found strong phenological advances in plants but differences in the extent of shifts among pollinator groups. The temporal trends in plant and insect phenologies were generally associated with interannual temperature variation and thus probably driven by climate change.
When examining the synchrony of species-level plant-pollinator interactions, their temporal trends differed among pollinator groups. Overall, plant-pollinator interactions become more synchronized, mainly because the phenology of plants, which historically lagged behind that of the pollinators, responded more strongly to climate change.
However, if the observed tren ds continue, many interactions may become more asynchronous again in the future. Our study suggests that climate change affects the phenologies of both plants and insects and that it also influences the synchrony of plant-pollinator interactions."