Urban hydrological responses to climate change


Urban hydrological responses to climate change

The various greenhouse gases play an important role in the climate since through the greenhouse effect they regulate the flow of energy retained in the earth's atmosphere and contribute to keeping the climatic parameters constant by reacting in the climatic warming and cooling phases.

The projected scenarios postulate that as the planet warms, the ice caps melt, and since snow has a high albed, declining ice caps will result in further increases in temperatures. Furthermore, warming seas will lead to more evaporation and as water vapor is also a greenhouse gas, there will be an amplifier effect.

Conversely, an increase in cloud cover due to increased evaporation will contribute to an increase in albedo and thus, theoretically, to global cooling. The anthropic influence on the climate in many cases is considered an external forcing as its influence is more systematic than chaotic, but it is also certain that man belongs to the terrestrial biosphere and can therefore be considered an internal influence according to which criterion is applied.

Urban hydrological responses to climate change

Urban hydrological responses to climate change and urbanization in cold climates, study published on the The Science of the total environment, explained: "This study explores hydrological response of urban catchment in Southern Finland to climate change and urbanization.

Process-based urban hydrological modeling and statistical analysis are applied to various urbanization and climate scenarios. Future changes in precipitation and temperature under Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 8.5 ( RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively) clearly influence urban streamflow all year-round.

We found snowpack shrinks during 2061 to 2090, snowmelt becomes earlier and the amount of melted runoff is reduced under both climate scenarios. The most significant runoff increase occurs in winter with the growth rates of 79% and 127%, respectively.

It is also found that the dominant portion of urban streamflow shifts from summer to autumn in the future under both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5.Results indicate that urbanization has direct impact on hydrological response due to the change of imperviousness, but climate change will have more significant impact on season the distribution of urban streamflow. Additionally, urbanization impacts shrink monthly streamflow differences along with climate change."