Urbanization and carbon emissions in Africa


Urbanization and carbon emissions in Africa

Urbanization is a problem that is affecting some areas of Africa. The overabundance of people in urbanized centers has as a side effect the increase in carbon emissions and pollution. The study Effects of urbanization and nonrenewable energy on carbon emission in Africa, published on the Environmental science and pollution research international, explained: "This study investigates the impact of urbanization and nonrenewable energy consumption on carbon emissions.

The context of the analysis is 54 African Union countries from 1996 to 2019. For estimation, we use panel quantile regression (PQR) and fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS ).Our regression results demonstrate that there is a positive correlation between urbanization and CO2 emission.

Further,our empirical results confirmed that nonrenewable energy consumption increases environmental pollution in African Union countries.The outcomes demonstrate the EKC hypothesis because at the initial stage of development, when economic growth increases, environmental pollution increases;after a threshold point, environmental pollution decreases as economic growth increases.

It can find an inverted U-shaped relationship between economic growth and CO2 emission.The findings also show that urbanization should be planned;otherwise, it can lead to environmental degradation in the long run run. Africa continent takes strict action and builds a blueprint for efficient and effective energy production and consumption.

The only solution to achieve green growth in Africa is to shift from fossil fuel energy supply to renewable energy supply." The combustion of coal, like that of any other carbon compound, produces carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

CO2 sequestration techniques have been proposed to reduce emissions, although these applications are still being studied and developed in many advanced countries due to the high cost that these technologies require for large-scale application.

Sulfur dioxide reacts with water, forming sulfurous acid. When sulfur dioxide is released into the atmosphere, it reacts with water vapor and eventually returns to earth as acid rain. To avoid this, modern plants are equipped with desulphurisation and denitrification systems, as well as post-combustion fume filtration, to reduce the emission of particulate matter into the atmosphere.