"To compare fine particulate matter concentrations in American Indian (AI)-populated with those in non-AI-populated counties over time (2000-2018) in the contiguous United States. We used a multicriteria approach to classify counties as AI- or non-AI-populated.
We ran linear mixed effects models to estimate the difference in countywide annual PM2.5 concentrations from well-validated prediction models and monitoring sites in AI-versus non-AI-populated counties. On average, adjusted modeled PM2.5 concentrations in AI-populated counties were 0.38 micrograms per cubic meter lower than in non-AI-populated counties.
However, this difference was not constant over time: in 2000, modeled concentrations in AI-populated counties were 1.46 micrograms per cubic meter lower, and by 2018, they were 0.66 micrograms per cubic meter higher. Over the study period, adjusted modeled PM2.5 mean concentrations decreased by 2.13 micrograms per cubic meter in AI-populated counties versus 4.26 micro grams per cubic meter in non-AI-populated counties.
Results were similar for measured PM2.5. This study highlights disparities in PM2.5 trends between AI- and non-AI-populated counties over time, underscoring the need to strengthen air pollution regulations and prevention implementation in tribal territories and areas where AI populations live." This is reported in the study Air Pollution in American Indian Versus Non-American Indian Communities, 2000-2018, published in the American journal of public health.
The effects on human health due to poor air quality mainly involve the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of exposure, the individual's state of health and genetics.
Indoor air pollution and poor urban air quality are listed as two of the world's worst toxic pollution problems in the 2008 report. Outdoor air pollution causes 2.1 to 4.21 million dead every year. Collectively, air pollution causes the deaths of approximately 7 million people worldwide each year and is the largest single environmental health risk in the world.
Productivity losses and degraded quality of life caused by air pollution are estimated to cost the world economy $50 trillion annually. Various pollution control technologies and strategies are available to reduce air pollution.