Pollution of water in Africa



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Pollution of water in Africa
Pollution of water in Africa

Water pollution is linked to ecosystems that have water as their main element and is caused by multiple factors, including untreated wastewater from industrial, agricultural or civil activities that reaches rivers, lakes and seas.

The type of water pollution can be of a chemical, physical or microbiological nature and the consequences can compromise the health of the flora and fauna involved, up to humans, harming the ecosystem and water reserves for drinking use.

There are two main ways through which pollutants reach water: directly or indirectly. Direct pollution occurs when polluting substances are poured directly into watercourses without any purification treatment. The indirect route, on the other hand, takes place when the pollutants arrive in watercourses through the air or soil.
The type of water pollution can be of a chemical, physical or microbiological nature and the consequences can compromise the health of the flora and fauna involved, up to humans, harming the ecosystem and water reserves for drinking use.

There are two main ways through which pollutants reach water: directly or indirectly. Direct pollution occurs when polluting substances are poured directly into watercourses without any purification treatment. The indirect route, on the other hand, takes place when the pollutants arrive in watercourses through the air or soil.

The study Pollution of water in Africa: a review of contaminants and fish as biomonitors and analytical methodologies-the case of Senegal, published on the Environmental science and pollution research international, explained: "Environmental pollution is one of the major problems facing human health, ecosystems, and biodiversity.

This is particularly the case for water quality in Senegal. Fish can be used as a biomonitor of pollution by accumulating pollutants from the environment through their tissues. Fish is an indispensable element in the assessment of the quality of the environment due to the diversity of biological cycles and their position in the food chain.

Fish, which is very sensitive to chemical and bacterial pollution, concentrated pollutants and is a good indicator of water quality. This review presents water pollution in Senegal and the possibility of using fish as an ideal monitoring matrix for marine environments, to detect the concentration of heavy metals and organic pollutants.The different extraction and analytical techniques used for fish biomonitoring will also be described."