Climate crisis and the diseases in semi-arid regions

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Climate crisis and the diseases in semi-arid regions

Global warming is the change in the earth's climate that has developed since the beginning of the twentieth century and is still ongoing. The scientific community attributes this change to emissions into the earth's atmosphere of increasing quantities of greenhouse gases (with a consequent increase in the greenhouse effect) and to other factors all attributable to human activity.

Climate change is instead the variations of the Earth's climate, variations at different spatial scales (regional, continental, hemispherical and global) and historical-temporal (ten-year, secular, millennial and ultramillennial) of one or more environmental and climatic parameters in their average values: temperatures (average, maximum and minimum), precipitation, cloud cover, ocean temperatures, distribution and development of plants and animals and buildings.

The various greenhouse gases play an important role in the climate since through the greenhouse effect they regulate the flow of energy retained in the earth's atmosphere and help to keep the climatic parameters constant by reacting in the phases of climate warming and cooling.

The predicted scenarios postulate that, as the planet warms, the ice caps melt: the decrease in the polar ice caps will lead to a further increase in temperatures. But what is the relationship between climate and climate-sensitive disases? For example, in semi-arid countries? The Climate and climate-sensitive diseases in semi-arid regions: a systematic review study, published on the International journal of public health, said: "We aim to describe the relationships between climate variables and climate-sensitive diseases (CSDs) in semi-arid regions, highlighting the different main groups of CSDs and their climate patterns.

This systematic review considered Medline, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science. The data collection period was August and September 2019 and included studies published between 2008 and 2019. This study followed a protocol based on the PRISMA statement.

Data analysis was done in a qualitative way. The most of works were from Africa, Asia and Iran (71%), where temperature was the main climatic variable. Although the studies provide climatic conditions that are more favorable for the incidence of vector-borne and respiratory diseases, the influence of seasonal patterns on the onset, development and end of CSDs is still poorly understood, especially for gastrointestinal disorders.

Moreover, little is known about the impact of droughts on CSDs. This review summarized the state of art of the relationship between climate and CSDs in semi-arid regions. Moreover, a research agenda was provided, which is fundamental for health policy development, priority setting and public health management."