Noise pollution is mainly caused by excessive exposure to high intensity sounds and noises. This can happen in large cities and natural environments.
Noise pollution can cause psychological, pressure and stress damage to people who are continually subjected to it.
The causes of noise pollution can be factories, construction sites, airports, highways, circuits for motor racing. The effects of noise on humans are manifold. The same sound phenomenon can be perceived both by the same individual and by several individuals.
It follows that sound can be considered both as a physical phenomenon, therefore measurable through objective instruments, and as a phenomenon linked to sound perception, of a subjective nature based on the psycho-physical-emotional state of the subject receiving the wave.
Noise pollution has effects on the coral reef
The study: Noise pollution on coral reefs? - A yet underestimated threat to coral reef communities, published on the Marine pollution bulletin, sees how noise pollution affects a certain natural environment, in this case the coral reef.
We can read: "Noise pollution is an anthropogenic stressor that is increasingly recognized for its negative impact on the physiology, behavior and fitness of marine organisms. Driven by the recent expansion of maritime shipping, artisanal fishing and tourism (eg, motorboats used for recreational purpose), underwater noise increased greatly on coral reefs.
In this review, we first provide an overview on how reef organisms sense and use sound. Thereafter we review the current knowledge on how underwater noise affects different reef organisms. Although the majority of available examples are limited to few fish species, we emphasize how the impact of noise differs based on an organisms' acoustic sensitivity, mobility and developmental stage, as well as between noise type, source and duration.
Finally, we highlight measures available to governments, the shipping industry and individual users and provide directions for polices and research aimed to manage this global issue of noise emissio n on coral reefs."