Glacier erosion has helped sculpt the Fjords in Norway's mountainous areas, which cover the range of coastal and polar ecosystems and serve as important interfaces between the cryosphere and the ocean. These slopes tend to be in the permafrost area, and the subsidence of those slopes could affect roads, cities and even trigger localized tsunamis if large rock masses hit fjords or lakes.
Norway is also called the country of fjords due to the presence of numerous of these submerged valleys, often spectacular. However, fjords are also found on the west coast of Ireland and Scotland, in Iceland, in Greenland, in the Canadian region of Labrador, in Alaska and then on the west coast of Canada, on the southern coast of Chile, in Patagonia, in the south.
-western New Zealand and Antarctica. The fjords for their narrow mouth and for the protection offered by the elevations that surround them are excellent natural harbors and are used for fishing fleets and for activities such as fish farming and shipyards.
Norway has the highest concentration of fjords in the world, and nowhere else can they be seen more than in western Norway. For this reason, the region is commonly referred to as Fjord Norway. The fjords can also be visited in central, northern and eastern Norway.
In eastern Sweden and some parts of Finland, the Swedish term fjärd is used. On the German coast they are called förde. The terms fjord, fjärd and förde are of common origin, but are different from a geological point of view.
In the genesis of the fjords of the east coast of Jutland in Denmark and of the German fördi, the ice did not move from the mountains to the sea, but tongues of ice moved from the sea, blocking in a Maremma (not high riviera).
The fjärdar of Sweden and Finland were born under ice core parts. Characteristic of the fjords of northern Europe is the tendency to freeze in the winter. The low temperatures, the shallow depths, the weakness of the waves and the scarcity of salt in these waters in fact favor this unusual phenomenon for marine waters.