The Arctic National Refuge in Alaska, in the last twenty years, the area has been subject to economic interests on the part of oil companies who have wanted to drill here to extract the so-called black gold. The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, also ANWR and Arctic Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge in the northeastern US state of Alaska.
With an area of 78,050.59 km², it is the largest of the National Wildlife Refuges, slightly larger than it Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, It covers 1/8 of the total area protected by NWR and is the largest piece of land owned by the United States federal government.
It is a nature reserve managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The habitat protects a wide range of wildlife and plants such as polar bears, caribou, wolves, eagles and many migratory birds. The ANWR connects to two Canadian national parks across the Canadian border, Ivvavik National Park and Vuntut National Park in the Yukon Territory.
In 1953, National Park Service planner George Collins and biologist Lowell Sumner published an article in the Sierra Club magazine titled "Northeast Alaska: The Last Great Wilderness". Collins and Sumner then activated The Wilderness Society president Olaus Murie and his wife Margaret Murie to protect the area permanently.
In 1956, Olaus and Murie led a Brooks Mountains expedition in northeastern Alaska, where they spent an entire summer studying the land and animal ecosystems of the Upper Sheenjek Valley. The conclusion that emerged from these studies was a thorough understanding of the importance of keeping the area intact, a determination that would play an instrumental role in the decision to consider the area as a wilderness area to be designated in 1960.
In 1960 it was Secretary of the Interior Fred Andrew Seaton who is inside cabinet-Eisenhower headed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower created the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. In 1980 the protection expanded United States Congress passed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act and this bill was enacted by the signature of President Jimmy Carter on December 2, 1980.
This not only added an additional coastline of 6,100 km² to the ANWR, but also became the Mollie Beattie Wilderness, an area of 32,000 km² of absolute protection in accordance with the Wilderness Act since 1964.