USA: Natural disasters related taumatic injuries and fatalities

An article published on the Journal of trauma nursing: the official journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses, makes an interesting retrospective on the subject.

by Lorenzo Ciotti
USA: Natural disasters related taumatic injuries and fatalities

Natural Disasters Related Traumatic Injuries / Fatalities in the United States and Their Impact on Emergency Preparedness Operations, article published on the Journal of trauma nursing: the official journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses, makes an interesting retrospective on the subject.

We can read: "From 2015 to 2019, the United States experienced a 17% increase in weather-related disasters. We aimed to study the patterns of natural disaster-related traumatic injuries and fatalities across the United States from 2014 to 2019 and to provide recommendations that can serve to mitigate the impact these natural disasters have on trauma patient morbidity and mortality.

A retrospective analysis of the National Safety Council (2014-2019) of natural disaster-related injuries and fatalities was conducted. Descriptive statistics and independent-samples t tests were performed, with significance defined as p <.05.

Floods produced significantly more mean fatalities per year than tornadoes (118 vs. 33; 95% CI [32.0, 139.0]), wildfires (118 vs. 43, 95% CI [24.8, 155.6]), hurricanes (118 vs. 13, 95% CI [51.5, 159.2]), and tropical storms (118 vs.

15, 95% CI [48.8, 158.2]).

Tornadoes produced significantly more mean injuries per year than floods (528 vs. 43, 95% CI [255.9, 715.8]), wildfires (528 vs. 69, 95% CI [227.1, 691.2]), hurricanes (528 vs. 26, 95% CI [270.1, 734.2]), and tropical storms (528 vs.

4, 95% CI [295.9, 753.5]). Southern states experienced greater disaster-related morbidity and mortality over the 6-year study period than other regions with 2,752 injuries and 771 fatalities. The incidence of traumatic injuries and fatalities related to certain natural disasters in the United States has significantly increased from 2014 to 2019.

Hospital leaders, public health, emergency preparedness personnel, and policy makers must collaborate to implement protocols and guidelines that ensure adequate training, supplies , and personnel to maintain trauma surge capacity, improve emergency preparedness response, and reduce associated morbidity and mortality.

Due to the acidification of the oceans, marine fauna is endangered

The lowering of the marine pH creates the phenomenon of coral bleaching; the calcium carbonate that makes up shells, molluscs, crustaceans and even coral, decreases in relation to the increase in acidity, thus losing the algae that live above the surface of the organism, leading it to death.

Although many organisms suffer from this increasing acidification, some photosynthetic organisms benefit from it. One case is represented by diatoms; that is microscopic algae belonging to phytoplankton. For these organisms, the increase of CO2 in water increases their ability to carry out their own photosynthesis processes.

These processes can be carried out if in the presence of certain environmental conditions. The research: Major loss of coralline algal diversity in response to ocean acidification, published on the Global change biology, said us: "Calcified coralline algae are ecologically important in rocky habitats in the marine photic zone worldwide and there is growing concern that ocean acidification will severely impact them.

Laboratory studies of these algae in simulated ocean acidification conditions have revealed wide variability in growth, photosynthesis and calcification responses, making it difficult to assess their future biodiversity, abundance and contribution to ecosystem function.

Here, we apply molecular systematic tools to assess the impact of natural gradients in seawater carbonate chemistry on the biodiversity of coralline algae in the Mediterranean and the NW Pacific, link this to their evolutionary history and evaluate their potential future biodiversity and abundance.

We found a decrease in the taxonomic diversity of coralline algae with increasing acidification with m ore than half of the species lost in high pCO2 conditions. S porolithales is the oldest order (Lower Cretaceous) and diversified when ocean chemistry favored low Mg calcite deposition; it is less diverse today and was the most sensitive to ocean acidification.

Corallinales were also reduced in cover and diversity but several species survived at high pCO2; it is the most recent order of coralline algae and originated when ocean chemistry favored aragonite and high Mg calcite deposition.

The sharp decline in cover and thickness of coralline algal carbonate deposits at high pCO2 highlighted their lower fitness in response to ocean acidification. Reductions in CO2 emissions are needed to limit the risk of losing coralline algal diversity. "