Stefania Montori and Lucia De Carolis talk to us in this monthly column about how, through proper nutrition, we can take care of the environment. Stefania, telling us about the products and that Lucia cultivates in an eco-sustainable way, explains: "Animal breeding, especially if intensive, produces a huge amount of CO2 and contributes significantly to pollution.
The excessive consumption of food of animal origin increases demand. something that deeply damages the ecosystem we live in. A varied diet, which includes fish, meat, but also and above all legumes and whole grains contributes to the correct nutrient needs of the organism, with a view to increasing sustainability If the planet is not healthy, its inhabitants are unlikely to be.
The common bean is an annual plant of the Leguminosae family, native to Central America. It was imported, following the discovery of America, in Europe where there were only beans of species belonging to the genus Vigna, of Asian origin: the beans of the genus Phaseolus have spread everywhere, supplanting the group of the ancient world, as they have proved more easy to grow and more profitable.
The first botanical description of the common bean, under the name of Smilax hortensis, is attributed to the botanists Hieronymus Bock and Leonhart Fuchs in 1542. The bean is a herbaceous plant, annual, with different bearing depending on the variety.
There are two main groups: runner beans, similar to the original type, and upright, more branched beans. The habit of the plant is mainly determined by its genome, but the ecological conditions in the various phenological phases can influence it.
For example, a high temperature (30 ° C) in the phase of the first trifoliate leaf always triggers a climbing habit. The bean has a non-dominant main root that is quickly supplemented with lateral roots. The roots can reach a depth of one meter if the soil is suitable.
The roots are in radical symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, mainly Rhizobium etli and Rhizobium phaseoli. The optimal conditions for the development of nodules are a temperature of 25 to 30 ° C and a pH of 6 to 7.
The fixed amount of nitrogen can reach 200 kg per hectare. The climbing stems are not very branched and wrap their support counterclockwise. They can reach 2-3 meters in height. the dwarf cultivations are more branched, erect, 40 to 60 cm high and are better suited to the mechanization of crops.
The adult leaves are petiolate, stipulated, alternate and trifoliate. The leaflets have an oval-pointed shape, almost lozenge-shaped and are 6 to 15 cm long and 3 to 11 cm wide."