Productivity losses and degraded quality of life caused by air pollution are estimated to cost the world economy € 50 trillion per year. Various technologies and pollution control strategies are available to reduce air pollution.
The effects on human health due to poor air quality mainly involve the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Indoor air pollution and poor urban air quality are listed as two of the worst toxic pollution problems in the world in the 2008 report.
Outdoor air pollution causes 2.1 to 4.21 million deaths every year. Given the great variety of substances present in the atmosphere, numerous classification methods have been proposed: firstly it can be classified according to the chemical composition, for which we mainly speak of compounds that contain sulfur, compounds that contain nitrogen, which contain carbon and halogen compounds.
Secondly, it can be classified according to the physical state: gaseous, liquid or solid; finally, it can be divided according to the degree of reactivity in the atmosphere, into primary or secondary substances. The influence of air pollution exposure on the short- and long-term health benefits associated with active mobility: A systematic review, study published on the The Science of the total environment, explained: "Active mobility (AM), defined as walking and cycling for transportation, can improve health through increasing regular physical activity.
However, these health improvements could be outweighed by harm from inhaling traffic-related air pollutants during AM participation. The interaction of AM and air pollutants on health is complex physiologically, manifesting as acute changes in health indicators that may lead to poor long-term health consequences.
The aim of this study was to systematically review the current evidence of effect modification by air pollution (AP) on associations between AM and health indicators. Studies were included if they examined associations between AM and health indicators being modified by AP or, conversely, associations between AP and health indicators being modified by AM.
Thirty-three studies met eligibility criteria. The main AP indicators studied were particulate matter, ultrafine particles, and nitrogen oxides. Most health indicators studied were grouped into cardiovascular and respiratory indicators.
There is evidence of a reduction by AP, mainly ultrafine particles and PM2.5, in the short-term health benefits of AM. Multiple studies suggest that long-term health benefits of AM are not negatively associated with levels of the single traffic-related pollutant NO2.
However, other studies reveal reduced long-term health benefits of AM in areas affected by high levels of pollutant mixtures. We recommend that future studies adopt consistent and rigorous study designs and include reporting of interaction testing, to advance understanding of the complex relationships between AM, AP, and health indicators."