"Despite multiple studies focusing on environmental factors conducive to the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), knowledge about the involvement of long-term exposure to air pollution seems insufficient. The main focus of epidemiological studies is placed on the relationship between exposure to various concentrations of particulate matter, behind the link between increased air pollution exposure and a higher risk of diabetes and metabolic dysfunction is yet unknown, available data indicate air pollution-induced inflammation and oxidative stress as a significant pathway.
The purpose of this paper is to assess recent research examining the association between inhalation exposure to PM and associated metals and the increasing rates of T1DM worldwide. The development of modern and more adequate methods f or air quality monitoring is also introduced.
A particular emphasis on microsensors, mobile and autonomous measuring platforms, satellites, and innovative approaches of IoT, 5G connections, and Block chain technologies are also presented. Reputable databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, were used to search for relevant literature.
Eligibility criteria involved recent publication years, particularly publications within the last five years (except for papers presenting a certain novelty or mechanism for the first time). Population, toxicological and epidemiological studies that focused particularly on fine and ultra-fine PM and associated ambient metals, were preferred, as well as full-text publications." The researchers explained this in the Air Pollution, Oxidative Stress, and the Risk of Development of Type 1 Diabetes study, published on the Antioxidants.
Pollution could affect the onset of diabetes
The causes are a set of factors affecting genetics, the environment and immunology: an immunological stimulus joins a basic genetic predisposition which, over time, leads to the destruction of beta cells; when the percentage of beta cells lost reaches 80%, we find ourselves facing form 1 diabetes mellitus.
The onset varies seasonally and can follow, among other things, measles, hepatitis or Coxsackie virus infections. It is theorized that these infections carry out an autoimmune response with the appearance of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which complete the destruction of the insulin-producing β cells of the pancreas.
It occurs more in Scandinavia, especially in Finland, in various states in the north of the USA, while in countries such as Japan or southern Europe the incidence is lower.
As for age, in about half of cases it begins at the age of 20 and more frequently during puberty. The worldwide incidence was calculated at 3%.