Diagnosing the level of chronic stress to which an individual is subject is neither simple nor unambiguous, given the generic nature of the phenomenon and the subjectivity in reacting to the various stress factors. The most classic method to measure the level of stress, of a purely psychological nature, is based on the compilation of questionnaires that investigate either the presence of stress factors in the patient's life, or the occurrence of symptoms related to stress or depression.
It is clear that the subjectivity in reacting to stress factors, or in the assessment of symptoms itself, is the main problem of this methodology, however widely adopted in the state of the art. In an attempt to make the evaluation as objective as possible, in recent decades we have studied the physiological alterations of stress, which mainly depend on a sympathetic hyperactivation and an inhibition of the parasympathetic compartment, mainly concerning the cardiac effectors.
Environmental Stress and Plants, study published on the International journal of molecular sciences, said: "Land plants are constantly subjected to multiple unfavorable or even adverse environmental conditions. Among them, abiotic stresses (such as salt, drunk, heat, cold, heavy metals, ozone, UV radiation, and nutrient deficiencies) have detrimental effects on plant growth and productivity and are increasingly important considering the direct or indirect effects of climate change.
Plants respond in many ways to abiotic stresses, from gene expression to physiology, from plant architecture to primary, and secondary metabolism.These complex changes allow plants to tolerate and/or adapt to adverse conditions.
The complexity of plant response can be further influenced by the duration and intensity of stress, the plant genotype, the combination of different stresses, the exposed tissue and cell type, and the developmental stage at which plants perceive the stress.
It is therefore important to understand more about how plants perceive stress conditions and how they respond and adapt. These concepts were the basis of the Special Issue that International Journal of Molecular Sciences expressly addressed to the relationship between environmental stresses and plants and that resulted in the publication of 5 reviews and 38 original research articles.
The large participation of several authors and the good number of contributions testifies to the considerable interest that the topic currently receives in the plant science community, especially in the light of the foreseeable climate changes.
Here, we briefly summarize the contributions included in the Special Issue, both original articles categorized by stress type and reviews that discuss more comprehensive responses to various stresses."