The secrets of the Mariana Trench

Its deepest point, the Challenger Abyss, is approximately 11,000 m below sea level

by Lorenzo Ciotti
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The secrets of the Mariana Trench

The Mariana Trench is the deepest known oceanic depression in the world, located in the northwestern area of the Pacific Ocean east of the Mariana Islands.
Its deepest point, the Challenger Abyss, is approximately 11,000 m below sea level.

The trench, whose shape from above describes a slight arc about 2500 km long, is located at the meeting of two tectonic plates in a subduction zone, more precisely where the Pacific plate insinuates itself under the Philippine plate.

Near the pit, as well as all other underwater pits, there are several underwater volcanoes.

The first surveys of the depth of this area of the Pacific Ocean were carried out by the Challenger expedition which between December 1872 and May 1876 carried out what is considered the first oceanographic expedition, circumnavigating the globe for 68,890 miles.

Measurements carried out by the Challenger corvette in the area discovered the existence of the depression, revealing a maximum depth of 4,475 fathoms, equivalent to 8,184 m. In 2012, a new dive was organized with the Deepsea Challenger submarine, built by an Australian team with the collaboration of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the University of Hawaii, with the task of collecting samples and filming the environment surrounding.

The secrets of the Mariana Trench

After a test dive carried out on 7 March 2012 in the New Britain Trench at a depth of over 8,000 metres, director James Cameron successfully dived to the bottom of the trench on 26 March 2012.

Cameron thus became the third man in history to accomplish the feat, the first solo.

In May 2019 Victor Vescovo, a Texan billionaire with a passion for exploration, descended aboard a bathyscaphe into the Challenger abyss, reaching the bottom at a depth of 10,924 m.

The depression owes its name to the oceanographic vessel HMS Challenger (1858) which made the first measurements of its depth during the 1872-1876 expedition. It is the deepest point on the Earth's surface, located at a depth between 10,898 m and 10,994 m below sea level.

It is located in the Pacific Ocean, near the Mariana Islands at the southern end of the Mariana Trench. The pressure on the bottom of the pit reaches 1064 atmospheres, i.e. 1064 times higher than what we experience on the earth's surface at sea level.

The closest landmass is the island of Fais, one of the islands of the state of Yap, located 289 km to the south-west and the island of Guam 306 km to the north-east.

What a surprise it is if it lives in the Fossa delle Marianne circa 750 mila marine specie not in the catalog of science.

289 km to the south-west and the island of Guam to 306 km to the north-east.

Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard che during the loro spedizione found a fondo chiaro e meraviglioso ricco di vita, ma privo di creature tranne.
The bottom of the living fossa is based on the molluscs of the heart: it is typical of the family of the Vesicomyidae and is distinguished by its stronghold.

More recently, from 2014 to 2017, at a depth of 8 miles, not under pressure from the Guam Island, I picked up a new creation: it is Lumaca, a lip of 20 cm with transparent pink color. so nutre di piccoli crostacei.