A bioplastic can be biodegradable and derives from organic materials such as wheat, corn or beet. A bioplastic can be biodegradable and made up entirely or in part of renewable plant raw materials annually. The bioplastics currently on the market are mainly composed of flour or starch from corn, wheat or other grains.
Specific types of bioplastic can be used in agriculture for mulching in the form of biofilm and solve the problem of disposal, as the film is left to decompose naturally on the ground. The land needed to cultivate the raw material for the bio-based plastics currently produced around the world amounts to approximately 0.02% of the arable land.
If, on the other hand, we based all current world production of fossil plastics on biomass as a raw material, the percentage would rise to 5%. The study: Plastic wastes biodegradation: Mechanisms, challenges and future prospects, published on the The Science of the total environment, in its retrospective, said us: "The growing accumulation of plastic wastes is one of the main environmental challenges currently faced by modern societies.
These wastes are considered a serious global problem because of their effects on all forms of life. There is thus an urgent need to demonstrate effective eco-environmental techniques to overcome the hazardous environmental impacts of traditional disposal paths prevailing mechanisms and the efficacy of synthetic plastics' biodegradation still appears limited.
Under this scope, our review aims to comprehensively highlight the role of microbes, with special emphasis on algae, on the entire plastic biodegradation process focusing on the depolarization of various synthetic plastic types Moreover, our review emphasizes on the ability of insects' gut microb ial consortium to degrade synthetic plastic wastes.
In this view, we discuss the schematic pathway of the biodegradation process of six types of synthetic plastics. These findings may contribute to establishing bio-upcycling processes of plastic wastes towards biosynthesis of valuable metabolic products. Finally, we discuss the challenges and opportunities for microbial valorization of degraded plastic wastes. "