Bioplastic is, according to the definition given by European Bioplastics, a type of plastic that can be biodegradable, bio-based or possess both characteristics.
It can derive from biomass, it can derive entirely from renewable raw materials and it can be biodegradable.
It can also derive from biomass and is not biodegradable. According to the definition given by Assobioplastiche, by bioplastics we mean those materials and manufactured articles, whether from renewable sources or of fossil origin, which have the characteristic of being biodegradable and compostable.
Assobioplastiche therefore suggests not including in bioplastics those deriving from biomass, which are not biodegradable and compostable, rather indicating them with the name vegetable plastics.
Production of biopolymers from food waste
The study Production of biopolymers from food waste: Constrains and perspectives, published on the Bioresource technology, to,d us: "Food is an essential commodity for the survival of any form of life on earth.
Yet generation of plethora of food waste has significantly elevated the global concern for food scarcity, human and environment deterioration. Also, increasing use of polymers derived from petroleum hydrocarbons has elevated the concerns towards the depletion of this non-renewable resource.
In this review, the use of waste food for the production of bio-polymers and their associated challenges has been thoroughly investigated using scientometric analysis. Various categories of food waste including fruit, vegetable, and oily waste can be employed for the production of different biopolymers including polyhydroxyalkanoates, starch, cellulose, collagen and others.
The advances in the production of biopolymers through chemical, microbial or enzymatic process that increases the acceptability of these biopolymers has been reviewed. The comprehensive compiled information may assist researchers for addressing and solving the issues pertaining to food wastage and fossil fuel depletion." Materials such as starch, cellulose, wood, sugar and biomass are used as substitutes for fossil fuel resources to produce bioplastics; this makes the production of bioplastics a more sustainable activity than the production of conventional plastics.
The environmental impact of bioplastics is often debated, as there are many different parameters for green. So the environmental impacts of bioplastics are classified into non-renewable energy use, climate change, eutrophication and acidification.
The production of bioplastics significantly reduces greenhouse gas emissions and non-renewable energy consumption. Companies around the world would also be able to increase the environmental sustainability of their products by using bioplastics.