Can childhood obesity cause metabolic problems and cancer in adults?

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Can childhood obesity cause metabolic problems and cancer in adults?

Excessive body weight is associated with various diseases, in particular cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, some types of cancer and osteoarthritis. Therefore obesity causes a reduction in life expectancy.

Obesity is a leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Some US and European studies, carried out on a large-scale sample, have shown that the risk of mortality is lower in non-smokers with a BMI between 20 and 25 kg / m², as well as in smokers with a BMI between 24 and 27 kg / m².

Among women, a doubling mortality rate over a 16-year period was associated with a BMI greater than 32 kg / m². In the United States, obesity is estimated to cause between 111 909 and 365 000 deaths per year, while in the European Union one million deaths (equal to 7.7% of the total) are attributed to weight in excess.

On average, obesity lowers life expectancy by about six to seven years: in particular, life expectancy decreases by two to four years in the case of moderate obesity (corresponding to a BMI between 30 and 35 kg / m²), while severe obesity (BMI greater than 40 kg / m²) reduces life expectancy by ten years.

Childhood obesity: increased risk for cardiometabolic disease and cancer in adulthood is a study published on the Metabolism: clinical and experimental, which tells us: "Prevalence of childhood obesity has worldwide more than doubled since 1980.

Underlying factors are complex and are far from completely understood. Strategies to prevent childhood obesity have mainly focused on behavioral intervention; and obesity therapy was mainly based on lifestyle modification to date.

However, effects for both have been quite limited so far and no country has succeeded in fighting the obesity epidemy we are facing. Normalization of body weight before onset of puberty is crucial for several reasons: First, obese children and adolescents frequently stay obese until adulthood.

Second, obesity during adolescence is significantly associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and metabolic disease such as type 2 diabetes in adulthood. And third, recent data have shown a strong association betwee n higher body mass index (BMI) during adolescence and increased risk for several malignancies such as leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, colorectal cancer, breast cancer and others in adulthood.

This review summarizes our current understanding of epidemiology, underlying factors, concomitant disease, as well as available intervention strategies and gives an overview of what has been reached so far and what measures should be undertaken to counteract the obesogenic environment. "