Fish Oil on Cardiovascular Diseases

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Fish Oil on Cardiovascular Diseases

The Effects of Fish Oil on Cardiovascular Diseases: Systematical Evaluation and Recent Advance is a retrospective study on a topic that closely affects health in one of its most important aspects and published on the Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine.

Cardiological pathologies are generically collected under the term Cardiopathy and will be distinguished according to the affected site. In the study we can read: "Fish oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, ie, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), both of which are widely distributed in the body such as heart and brain.

In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that unsaturated fatty acids may have effects of anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, protecting vascular endothelial cells, thrombosis inhibition, modifying autonomic nerve function, improving left ventricular remodeling, and regulating blood lipid.

Given the relevance to public health, there has been increasing interest in the research of potential cardioprotective effects of fish oil. Accumulated evidence showed that fish oil supplementation may reduce the risk of cardiovascular events, and, in specific, it may have potential benefits in improving the prognosis of patients with hypertension, coronary heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, or heart failure; however, some studies yielded inconsistent results.

In this article, we performed an updated systematical review in order to provide a contemporary understanding with regard to the effects of fish oil on cardiovascular diseases."

Raw fish poisoning in Tokyo: the current situation

Current Status of Anisakiasis and Anisakis Larvae in Tokyo, Japan, is a very interesting study done on raw fish food poisoning in Japan, especially in its capital.

Published on the Food safety magazine of Tokyo, we can read: "Anisakiasis is a gastrointestinal disease caused by infection with anisakid nematodes. Anisakis larvae have been listed as distinct food poisoning agents in the manual of Food Poisoning Statistics, Japan since 2013.

The reported numbers of food poisoning cases caused by Anisakis larvae are gradually increasing. A total of 94.0% of the causative larvae species were identified as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (A. simplex), and 4.4% were identified as Anisakis pegreffii, among human-isolated anisakid nematodes examined in Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health, Japan from 2011 to 2018.

Anisakis species infecting fishes in Japanese waters differ depending on their habitat and depth. A. simplex mainly infects fishes in the Pacific side of Japan, and A. pegreffii mainly infects fishes in the East China Sea and Sea of ​​Japan sides.

Regarding the causative foods of anisakiasis, cases by ingestion of mackerel (Scomber spp.) h ave been the most common in Japan, and cases caused by eating "marinated mackerel" accounted for 32.8% of the total in Tokyo from 2011 to 2017.

However, the number of reports of food poisoning caused by skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) was highest in May 2018 in Japan. A parasitological surveys of Anisakis third-stage larvae in skipjack tuna in Japanese waters were conducted in 2018 and 2019, and it was confirmed that more A.

simplex infections of skipjack tuna may have occurred in 2018 than usual due to the meandering flow of the Black Current. Moreover, a portion of A. simplex larvae migrated from visceral organs to the ventral muscle in live skipjack tuna before capture, suggesting that an extensive cold chain after capture cannot prevent anisakiasis.

In fish species that were reported to be high frequency of causative food of anisakiasis, it is necessary to freeze or at least remove the ventral muscle. "