The effects on human health due to poor air quality mainly involve the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Individual reactions to air pollution depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of exposure, the individual's health and genetics.
Indoor air pollution and poor urban air quality are listed as two of the worst toxic pollution problems in the world in the 2008 report. Outdoor air pollution causes 2.1 to 4.21 million deaths every year. Overall, air pollution causes the deaths of approximately 7 million people worldwide each year and is the single largest environmental health risk in the world.
Productivity losses and degraded quality of life caused by air pollution are estimated to cost the world economy € 50 trillion per year. The various means of transport can impact the environment differently depending on their characteristics, first of all the greater the size and weight of the vehicle, the greater the energy needed to accelerate and stop the vehicle, generating a greater impact than a small vehicle.
of the same technology, both as regards the pollutants produced by the engine and its power source. Automotive pollution such as fine dust then affects homes, where it accumulates together with dust produced from other sources, such as fireplaces and stoves, cigarettes and kitchens, however the impact of dust produced by vehicles is proportionally less than to other sources in the house.
The Cardiovascular Effects of Particulate Air Pollution study, published on the Annual review of medicine, analyzes: "Inhalation of fine particulate matter, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to increases in blood pressure, thrombosis, and insulin resistance. It also induces vascular injury and accelerates atherogenesis. Results from animal models corroborate epidemiological evidence and suggest that the cardiovascular effects of PM2.5 may be attributable, in part, to oxidative stress, inflammation, and the activation of the autonomic nervous system.
Although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, there is robust evidence that long-term exposure to PM2.5 is associated with premature mortality due to heart failure, stoke, and ischemic heart disease. "