Noise pollution can cause psychological, pressure and stress damage to people who are continually subjected to it. The causes of noise pollution can be factories, construction sites, airports, highways. A prolonged exposure to continuous noise at 80 dB (A) for 8 hours a day and for many years does not cause any damage to the hearing system, this for healthy subjects.
The effects that determine noise damage depend on the overall sound level, the type of noise, the duration of exposure, individual susceptibility and interaction with other factors and can lead to three types of health effects.
It is through the evaluation of the characteristics of perturbing noise on the façade of buildings or inside them, compared with the results of social surveys using appropriate questionnaires, that the relationships between noise and disturbance can be researched.
Studies carried out entirely in the laboratory can be very different as the disturbance of an individual in the laboratory can be very different from that manifested in one's own apartment. The Transportation noise pollution and cardiovascular disease study, published on the Nature reviews Cardiology, explained: "Epidemiological studies have found that transportation noise increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, with high-quality evidence for ischaemic heart disease.
According to the WHO, ≥1.6 million healthy life-years are lost annually from traffic-related noise in Western Europe. Traffic noise at night causes fragmentation and shortening of sleep, elevation of stress hormone levels, and increased oxidative stress in the vasculature and the brain.
These factors can promote vascular dysfunction, inflammation and hypertension, thereby elevating the risk of cardiovascular disease. In this Review, we focus on the indirect, non-auditory cardiovascular health effects of transportation noise.
We provide an updated overview of epidemiological research on the effects of transportation noise on cardiovascular risk factors and disease, discuss the mechanisti c insights from the latest clinical and experimental studies, and propose new risk markers to address noise-induced cardiovascular effects in the general population.
We also explain, in detail, the potential effects of noise on alterations of gene networks, epigenetic pathways, gut microbiota, circadian rhythm, signal transduction along the neuronal-cardiovascular axis, oxidative stress, inflammation and metabolism.
Lastly, we describe current and future noise-mitigation strategies and evaluate the status of the existing evidence on noise as a cardiovascular risk factor."