Although pesticides are not the only cause of ecological damage, they are certainly one of the most serious. This danger was ignored for a long time until fears became dramatically evident: disappearance of animal species, disappearance of fish in rivers and seas near the coasts, reduction of game, especially birds, contamination of water and land until to the polar regions: a profound alteration of the environmental balance.
The study Pesticide residues in drinking water, their potential risk to human health and removal options, published on the Journal of environmental management, explained: "The application of pesticides in agricultural and public health sectors has resulted in substantially contaminated water resources with residues in many countries.
Almost no reviews have addressed pesticide residues in drinking water globally; calculated hazard indices for adults, children, and infants; or discussed the potential health risk of pesticides to the human population. The objectives of this article were to summarize advances in research related to pesticide residues in drinking water; conduct health risk assessments by estimating the daily intake of pesticide residues consumed only from drinking water by adults, children , and infants; and summarize options for pesticide removal from water systems.
Approximately 113 pesticide residues were found in drinking water samples from 31 countries worldwide. There were 61, 31, and 21 insecticide, herbicide, and fungicide residues, respectively. in toxicity class IA, 14 residues were in toxicity class IB, 55 residu es were in toxicity class II, 17 residues were in toxicity class III, and 23 residues were in toxicity class IV.
The calculated hazard indices (HIs) exceeded the value of one in many cases. The lowest HI value (0.0001) for children was found in Canada, and the highest HI value (30.97) was found in Egypt, suggesting a high potential health risk to adults, children, and infants.
The application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) showed efficient removal of many pesticide classes. The combination of adsorption followed by biodegradation was shown to be an effective and efficient purification option.
In conclusion, the consumption of water contaminated with pesticide residues may pose risks to human health in exposed populations."