The effects on human health due to poor air quality mainly involve the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Individual reactions to air pollution depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of exposure, the individual's health and genetics.
Indoor air pollution and poor urban air quality are listed as two of the worst toxic pollution problems in the world in the 2008 report. Outdoor air pollution causes 2.1 to 4.21 million deaths every year. Overall, air pollution causes the deaths of approximately 7 million people worldwide each year and is the single largest environmental health risk in the world.
The Cardiovascular effects of traffic-related air pollution: A multi-omics analysis from a randomized, crossover trial, published on the Journal of hazardous materials, told: "A system-wide cardiovascular response to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) has been rarely described.
To systemically understand the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular effects of TRAP, we conducted a randomized, crossover trial in 56 young adults, who engaged in two 4- hour exposure sessions on a main road and in a park, alternately.
We measured personal exposures to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs), including fine and ultrafine particulate matter, black carbon, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Lipidomics, targeted proteomics, urine metabolomics, targeted biomarkers, ambulatory blood pressure and electrocardiogram were measured.
We used linear mixed-effects models to estimate the associations. The exposures to TRAPs except for fine particulate matter in the road session were 2-3 times higher. We observed elevated blood pressure and decreased heart rate variability (HRV) after TRAP exposure, accompanied by dozens of molecular alterations involving systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, coagulation, and lipid metabolism.
Pathways like vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and biomarkers like trimethylamine N-Oxide might also be disturbed. Some of these TRAP-related molecular biomarkers were also associated with changes of blood pressure or HRV.
Our results provided systematical mechanistic profiling for the cardiovascular effects of TRAP using multi omics, which may have implications in TRAP control."