Obesity and prostate cancer



by LORENZO CIOTTI

Obesity and prostate cancer

Prostate cancer occurs most frequently in people over 50, and is the second most common type of cancer in the United States, after lung cancer, where it is responsible for the highest number of cancer-related deaths. Many factors, including genetics and diet, have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer is most often discovered on a physical examination or through blood tests, such as a PSA measurement. Suspected prostate cancer is typically confirmed by excision of a piece of tissue, followed by histological examination.

Additional tests, such as ultrasound, x-rays, and scintigraphy, may be used to determine how far it has spread and whether or not the cancer has metastasized. Prostate cancer can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, occasionally chemotherapy, or a combination of these.

The patient's age and health status, as well as tumor spread, microscopic appearance, and response to initial treatment, are important in determining prognosis. Since prostate cancer is a disease typical of older men, many of them will die before the tumor can grow or cause symptoms; this makes treatment selection difficult.

Obesity and prostate cancer: what you need to know about

The study Obesity and prostate cancer: A narrative review, published on the Critical reviews in oncology/hematology, said: "Overweight and obese men with prostate cancer are at an increased risk of disease recurrence, exacerbated treatment-related adverse effects, development of obesity-related comorbidities, earlier progression and development of metastatic disease, and higher all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality.

The physiological mechanisms associating obesity with poor prostate cancer outcomes remain largely unknown;however, an increased inflammatory environment and metabolic irregularities associated with excess fat mass are commonly postulated.Although research is limited, fat loss strategies using exercise and nutrition programs may slow down prostate cancer progression and improve a patient's prognosis.

This review is an overview of: the association between obesity and poor prostate cancer prognosis;potential physiological mechanisms linking obesity and prostate cancer progression;the effect of obesity on treatments for prostate cancer;and the potential for weight loss strategies to improve outcomes in patients with prostate cancer."