Smoking increases arterial pressure, causes atherosclerosis, hindering blood circulation in the vessels and increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke. Lung cancer, in the USA in 2005 considered as 13% of all cancers, while in Italy it is considered the first cause of death from cancer, with 32,000 deaths in 2002.
Cancer of the mouth, of which it represents the first cause ever , together with the abuse of alcohol, a habit that is often accompanied by smoking. Endometrial cancer, especially in postmenopausal women, and gastric cancer, for which it is considered the highest risk factor, are also tumors that can develop due to smoking.
Cigarette smoking can cause desquamative interstitial pneumonia, acute myocardial infarction, which in women increases the risk by 6 to 9 times, stroke, respiratory bronchiolitis with interstitial disease, Buerger's disease, a form of thrombosis more widespread in the Asian continent, if If a person continues to consume cigarettes habitually, it may be necessary to amputate the affected limb.
The liver is a very sensitive organ, which can be damaged by smoking. Cigarette smoking and liver diseases, article published on the Journal of hepatology, explained: "Cigarette smoking is a preventable risk factor for premature morbidity and mortality.
A history of smoking is observed in approximately 40% of patients with liver disease, while a growing number of studies are investigating the potential impact of smoking in chronic liver diseases. This review discusses the effects of smoking on liver diseases, at multiple levels, with a focus on its potential causal role.Clinical evidence indicates that cigarette smoking negatively impacts the incidence and severity of fatty liver disease, fibrosis progression, hepatocellular carcinoma development, and the outcomes of patients with advanced liver disease.
The underlying mechanisms are complex and involve different pathophysiological pathways including oxidative stress and oncogenic signals.Importantly, smoking promotes cardiovascular disease and extrahepatic cancers in patients with steatohepatitis and in transplant recipients.
We discuss how promoting smoking cessation could improve the rates of t reaction response (in clinical trials) and fibrosis regression, while reducing the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and improving liver transplant outcomes.
Finally, we discuss current challenges such as the referral of smokers to specialized units for smoking cessation."