Air pollution and liver cancer: A systematic review, a study published in the Journal of environmental sciences (China), takes a retrospective look at this topic. The researchers explain: "Air pollution has previously been linked to several adverse health outcomes, but the potential association between air pollution and liver cancer remains unclear.
We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science from inception to 10 October 2021, and manually reviewed the references of relevant papers to further identify any related literature investigating possible associations between air pollution and liver cancer.
Risk estimates values were represented by statistical associations based on quantitative analyses. A total of 13 cohort studies obtained from 11 articles were included, with 10,961,717 participants PM2.5 was the most frequently examined pollutant, followed by NO2 and NOx, and fewer focused studies on other pollutants.In all the 16 associations for liver cancer mortality, 14 associations reported the effect of PM2.5 on liver cancer mortality.
Eight associations on PM2.5 were significant, showing a suggestive association between PM2.5 and liver canc it's mortality. Among 24 associations shown by risk estimates for liver cancer incidence, most associations were not statistically significant.
For other air pollutants, no positive associations were presented in these studies. PM2.5 was the most frequently examined pollutant, followed by NO2 and NOx, and fewer studies focused on other pollutants. PM2.5 was associated with liver cancer mortality, but there was no association for other air pollutants.
Future research should use advanced statistical methods to further assess the impact of multiple air pollutants on liver cancer in the changing socio-environmental context." Liver tumors are usually diagnosed with medical imaging equipment or present with symptoms such as an abdominal mass, abdominal pain, jaundice, nausea, or liver dysfunction.
The most common type is hepatocellular carcinoma. The main cause is cirrhosis as a result of hepatitis B, hepatitis C or alcoholism. Hepatitis B is estimated to be responsible for 300,000 deaths, hepatitis C for 343,000 deaths and alcohol for 92,000 deaths from liver cancer.
Liver tumors are different from liver metastases which, instead of originating in the liver, originate from other parts of the body and spread throughout the liver parenchyma. Liver tumors affect either the liver itself or structures within it, including blood vessels or bile ducts.
Primary liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. In 2012 there were 782,000 cases and 746,000 deaths. The highest rates have been recorded where hepatitis B and C are most common, such as in East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Five-year survival rates in the United States are 17%.