Air pollution and prostate cancer in a population-based Canadian



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Air pollution and prostate cancer in a population-based Canadian

Air pollution is a major cause of many health problems, even serious ones, such as some cases of cancer. One of them is prostate cancer. Let's see how one research has studied the incidence of this cancer related to air quality in people living in Canada.

Ambient air pollution and prostate cancer risk in a population-based Canadian case-control study, published on the Environmental epidemiology (Philadelphia, Pa.), explained: "We investigated associations between ambient concentrations particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and incident prostate cancer in a Canadian case-control study.

Between 1994 and 1997, cases were identified from provincial cancer registries, and a population- based series of controls was recruited. Among men 50 years of age or older, risk factor and residential history data (1975 to 1994) were collected from 1,420 prostate cancer cases and 1,424 controls.Three methods were used to estimate the residential mean exposure to PM2 .5 and NO2 during this period: satellite-derived observations;satellite-derived observations scaled with historical fixed-site measurements;and a national land-use regression (LUR) model.

Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs ) in relation to interquartile range (IQR) increases in PM2.5 and NO2 were estimated using logistic regression, adjusting for personal and contextual factors. We found positive associations between exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 over the previous 20 years and prostate cancer.

Our findings support the hypothesis that ambient air pollution increases the risk of prostate cancer." Prostate cancer can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, occasionally chemotherapy, or a combination of these.

The patient's age and health status, as well as tumor spread, microscopic appearance, and response to initial treatment, are important in determining prognosis. Since prostate cancer is a disease typical of older men, many of them will die before the tumor can grow or cause symptoms; this makes treatment selection difficult.

The decision whether or not to treat a localized tumor, ie completely confined within the prostate, implies a balance between the expected benefits and the negative effects in terms of patient survival and quality of life.