Impact of pollution and meteorological factors on acute coronary syndrome



by LORENZO CIOTTI

Impact of pollution and meteorological factors on acute coronary syndrome

Acute coronary syndrome or ACS, defined in English Acute Coronary Syndrome or ACS, is a definition that brings together the different clinical manifestations of ischemic heart disease or, to better specify, of the pathology of the coronary arteries. The symptom that unites these manifestations is precordial pain, present in the majority of people who go to the Emergency Department of hospitals in the suspicion of a cardiovascular pathology.

This symptom is often radiated to the left arm, jaw and associated with neurovegetative symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. In the presence of chest pain, there is a need to arrive at the diagnosis as soon as possible, since the heart can be damaged by the prolongation of the ischemic time to which it is subjected: there are chest pain protocols in any Emergency Department, which allow the patient to follow pre-established and shared paths in all hospital emergency departments.

The study The Impact of Meteorological Factors and Air Pollutants on Acute Coronary Syndrome, published on the Current cardiology reports, explained: "Several studies have found that air pollution and climate change can have an impact on acute coronary syndromes (ACS), the leading cause of death worldwide.

We synthesized the latest information about the impact of air pollution and climate change on ACS, the latest data about the pathophysiological mechanisms of meteorological factors and atmospheric pollutants on atherosclerotic disease, and an overall image of air pollution and coronary heart disease in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The variation of meteorological factors in different seasons increased the risk of ACS. Both the increase and the decrease in apparent temperature were found to be risk factors for ACS admissions. It was also demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of air pollutants, especially particulate matter, increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Climate change as well as increased emissions of air pollutants have a major impact on ACS. The industrialization era and the growing population cause a constant increase in air pollution worldwide. Thus, the number of ACS favored by air pollution and the variations in meteorological factors is expected to increase dramatically in the next few years."