Particulate matter is an aerosol of small solid particles classified according to their size. Airborne particles are usually measured in PTS. PM10 when their mean aerodynamic diameter is less than 10 microns PM2.5 when their mean aerodynamic diameter is less than 2.5 microns, and more harmful because they can pass through upper respiratory airway filters.
Attention is now focusing on the health impact of even smaller particles, PM0.1 and so-called nanodusts, which penetrating further deeply are believed to be even more harmful. The effects on human health due to poor air quality mainly involve the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system.
Individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of exposure, the individual's state of health and genetics. The PM2.5 and Cardiovascular Health Risks study, published in the Current problems in cardiology, told: "PM2.5 is a frequently studied particulate matter metric, due to its wide range of identified overall adverse health effects, particularly cardiovascular health risks.
However, there are no clear clinical practice guidelines for air pollution in regard to the prevention of cardiovascular health risks , since most of the current medical guidelines for CVD focus on metabolic risk factors such as hyperlipidemia or diabetes.
We sought to determine the relationship between PM2.5 and cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality by performing a systematic review and meta We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Scopus, and Web of Science from the database inception to December 2022 for studies that reported an association between PM2.5 and cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular events, and all -cause mortality.
We used the DerSimonian & Laird random-effects method to pool hazard ratios or risk ratios separately from the included studies. Of the total 18 prospective studies, 7,300,591 individuals were followed for a median follow-up of 9 years.
Compared to low long-term exposure to PM 2.5 levels, an increase in exposure to PM 2.5 levels resulted in an increase in all-cause mortality (HR 1.08 95% CI of 1.05-1.11, P < 0.05). Similarly, when compared to a low long-term exposure to PM 2.5 levels, an increase in exposure to PM 2.5 levels resulted in an increase in cardiovascular disease (HR 1.09, 95% CI of 1.00-1.18, P < 0.05) and an increase in cardiovascular disease mortality (HR 1.12, 95% CI of 1.07-1.18, P < 0.05).
Increased exposure to PM 2.5 levels is significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease mortality. Although federal primary and secondary standards are in place, those standards are not low enough to prevent CVD health effects.
Clinicians should emphasize PM2.5 as a modifiable CV risk factors for their patients to potentially reduce the development of CV complications. A clinical action guideline is needed specifically for air pollution effects on CVD, and how to mitigate them."