PM 2.5 are fine dust. It may be minimally of natural origin but for the most part it originates from human activities of various kinds, industrial and otherwise. An example are the brakes of motor vehicles which, when consumed, emit PM 2.5 but which are not the source of the greatest pollution.
It can be of primary or secondary type, when it is formed after the chemical-physical transformation of other original substances. It is a mixture of particles with different properties, consisting of mineral powders but also compounds such as nitrates, sulphates, ammonia and salts.
It is calculated that for a presence of PM 2.5 10 points higher than the maximum allowed, there is an increase in the probability of contracting cancer equal to 7%. In a study carried out from 2004 to 2008, by sampling data from 100 days, PM 2.5 levels occurred in some cities which exceeded the limit value of 50 µg/m³ by up to 3 times.
The studies carried out vary greatly with regard to the predictions of a possible cancer and it emerges from some studies that the probability of contracting cancer increases by over 18% with values that exceed the maximum threshold of just 5 µg/m³.
PM2.5 has a nefarious impact on the kidneys
A study of 460,000 patients found that exposure to PM 2.5 is associated with an increase in mutations in the Egfr and Kras genes, factors that cause lung cancer.
PM 2.5 includes all particles having dimensions smaller than or equal to 2.5 microns (µm) (where 1 micron (μ) corresponds to one thousandth of a millimetre.
The study The impact of PM2.5 on kidney, published in the Journal of applied toxicology: JAT, explained: "PM2.5 poses a severe risk to kidneys, inducing kidney function decline, increasing the risk of suffering from chronic kidney diseases and promoting the occurrence and development of various renal tumors.
The mechanism of PM2.5-induced renal injury may involve oxidative stress , inflammatory response, and cytotoxicity.This paper elaborated PM2.5-induced kidney damage and the corresponding possible mechanism so as to raise awareness of air pollution and reduce the damage to human body."