Asthma is characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, wheezing, chest tightness, and coughing. Sputum can be produced in the lungs from coughing, but it is often difficult to relieve. While recovering from a seizure, pus may appear as a cause of high levels of white blood cells called eosinophils.
Symptoms usually tend to get worse at night and early in the morning. Some asthmatics experience typical symptoms in response to certain causative factors, while others may present them persistently. The fundamental exam for the study of asthma is spirometry, which consists in blowing into an instrument (spirometer) which measures both the quantity of air emitted and the speed with which it is emitted, and provides information on the state of obstruction of the airways .
A simple but important test is the so-called reversibility test that can be performed in patients in whom spirometry has shown the presence of bronchial obstruction. The test consists in performing two spirometries, one before and one after the administration of a spray bronchodilator drug.
In asthmatics, this administration causes significant bronchodilation that allows diagnosis. The Effect of Passive Exposure to Tobacco Smoke on the Immune Response in Children with Asthma, published on the Substance use & misuse, tries to explain in depth this aspect of asthma in children: "Introduction: There are a few publications about the impact of tobacco smoke on the children's immune system.
The study group consisted of 43 children with asthma. The control group consisted of 37 healthy children. The exposure to tobacco smoke was assessed by the presence of the cotinine in the urine (metabolit of nicotine). The group of children with asthma exposed to tobacco smoke had significantly higher levels of the IL-1 and lower levels IL-4 than children not exposed to the passive smoking.
The children from the control group exposed to tobacco smoke had a significantly higher concentration of IL-4 than unexposed children. In the whole analyzed population, there was a significant positive correlation between cotinine-IL1 and cotinine-C RP.
Conclusion: In this study we found that the passive exposure to tobacco smoke has the immunomodulatory effects on the immune system. "