The pomegranate is a berry with a very robust consistency, with a very hard and leathery skin, it has a round or slightly elongated shape, sometimes sub-hexagonal, with a diameter from 5 to 12 cm and with a size strongly conditioned by the variety and, above all, by the conditions of cultivation.
The fruit has several robust internal partitions that perform the function of placentation for the seeds, called grains or arils separated by a membrane called cica. The seeds, red in color, in some varieties are surrounded by a translucent pulp colored from white to ruby red, more or less acidulous and, in the edible fruit varieties, sweet and fragrant.
In the apical position the fruit bears a characteristic robust crown of four to five pieces, which are residues of the floral calyx. The fruit ripens in October-November, depending on the variety. The study: Composition and Potential Health Benefits of Pomegranate: A Review, published on the Current pharmaceutical design, said us: "Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed and used as preventive and therapeutic agents since ancient times.
Pomegranate is a rich source of a variety of phytochemicals, which are responsible for its strong antioxidative and anti-inflammatory potential. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview of the current knowledge of chemical structure and potential health benefits of pomegranate.
A comprehensive search of available literature. The review of the literature confirms that juice and extracts obtained from different parts of this plant, including fruit peel, seeds, and leaves exert health benefits in both in vitro and in vivo studies.
The antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antimicrobial and anti-tumor effects of pomegranate fruit are of particular scientific and clinical interest. Further investigations are required to clarify the mechanism of action of the bioactive ingredients and to reveal full potential of pomegranate as both preventive and therapeutic agent."
Viewing a winter forest landscape and its psychological effects
The study: effects of viewing a winter forest landscape with the ground and trees covered in snow on the psychological relaxation of young Finnish adults: A pilot study, published on the PLoS One, tries to go into depth on a topic that is very close to heart to all the populations of northern Europe, especially Scandinavian ones, struggling with long and dark winters, which often cause depression and which sometimes have tragic consequences on people's lives.
Yet the sight of winter landscapes taken by the studio have a very surprising effect. We can read: "Forest bathing is an outdoor activity, and it might be a promising preventive treatment for social problems involving stress.
A vast number of studies confirm the positive effects of this activity on people's health. Nevertheless, little is known about the influence of winter forest bathing when conducted in an environment with snow cover on the ground and trees.
Thus, a crossover experiment was designed in this study, with the participation of twenty-two healthy university students from Finland. During the experiment, a short exposition by a forest environment or landscape with buildings (as a control) was applied.
Participants self-reported their psychological relaxation before and after the exposition, and the results were analyzed and compared. The mood, emotions, restorativeness, and subjective vitality were recorded as indices reflecting the psychological relaxation effect.
The negative mood indices decreased significantly after exposition by the snow-covered enviro nment, but the positive 'vigor' indices did not increase or decrease significantly. The level of negative emotions increased after the exposition with the control environment.
Likewise, positive emotions decreased after the interaction with the control. Restorativeness was significantly increased after the exposition by the experimental forest but decreased after the viewing of the control buildings.
The size of the effect in terms of restorativeness was the highest in this experiment. The subjective vitality was lowered as affected by the control, but it did not increase or decrease after the exposition with the experimental forest.
There is probably an effect from the slight interruption in the process from the influence of the forest greens on participants because their vigor and vitality did not increase after the exposition with this environment in the study.
However, snow might influence the participants as a calming and emotion-lowering component of the environment, but this idea needs to be further explored with the involvement of participants from other countries who would be viewing forest environments with snow cover and whose psychological relaxation could be measured. "